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How to Identify Genuine Sapphires Like a Pro

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Sapphires are among the most coveted gemstones in the world, admired for their stunning beauty, rich colors, and timeless appeal. However, with the rise of synthetic and imitation gemstones, distinguishing a genuine sapphire from a fake has become increasingly challenging for both consumers and enthusiasts.

How to Identify Genuine Sapphires Like a Pro

In this informative blog post, we will delve into the various techniques and methods used by gemologists and experts to identify real sapphires. From visual inspections to conducting specific tests, we will equip you with the knowledge and tools to confidently determine the authenticity of your sapphire gemstone.

Visual Inspection

Color Analysis

One of the most telling factors in identifying a real sapphire lies in its color. Sapphires come in a wide range of colors, with the most popular being blue. However, they can also be found in stunning shades of pink, yellow, green, and even color-changing varieties. When examining a sapphire’s color, it is crucial to look for consistency and intensity throughout the gemstone.

Genuine sapphires display rich and vibrant colors that are evenly distributed across the stone. The hues should not appear dull, washed out, or overly dark. Be wary of sapphires that seem too bright or overly saturated, as this could be an indication of synthetic or treated gemstones. In some cases, natural inclusions may affect a sapphire’s color, but they should not obscure the overall brilliance and beauty of the stone.

Inclusions and Flaws

Inclusions, or internal characteristics, are natural features found in most gemstones, including sapphires. These inclusions can provide valuable insights into a sapphire’s authenticity. While natural sapphires often contain inclusions, the key is to distinguish them from synthetic or imitation gems.

Genuine sapphires typically have inclusions that form within the crystal structure over millions of years. These may appear as fine needle-like structures, feathers, or crystal growth patterns. They can also create the highly sought-after “star” effect known as asterism in certain sapphires.

Real Sapphire

On the other hand, synthetic or imitation sapphires might show signs of bubbles, swirls, or uniform patterns, indicating they were artificially created. Additionally, some imitation sapphires are made of composite materials, making them easily distinguishable when examined under a loupe or microscope.

When assessing the inclusions, look for their placement, type, and distribution. Natural inclusions will often vary throughout the gemstone, while synthetic ones may be more consistent or have a repeating pattern.

Luster and Transparency

The luster and transparency of a sapphire can also offer clues about its authenticity. Real sapphires possess a distinct brilliance and shine that comes from their high refractive index. Hold the gemstone up to the light and observe how it interacts with the surrounding environment.

Genuine sapphires will exhibit a remarkable luster that reflects light from all angles, creating a captivating sparkle. They should also have excellent transparency, allowing light to pass through without significant obstruction. Beware of sapphires that appear dull, lackluster, or overly cloudy, as these characteristics may suggest an imitation or low-quality gemstone.

Remember that the overall appearance of a sapphire is a combination of its color, inclusions, and luster. A genuine sapphire will showcase a harmonious blend of these features, creating a mesmerizing gem that stands apart from its imitations.

Hardness and Durability

The Hardness Scale and Sapphire’s Place on It

Hardness is a fundamental characteristic of gemstones, and it plays a crucial role in determining a sapphire’s authenticity. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, ranging from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest), provides a standardized way to assess a gemstone’s hardness. Diamonds, the hardest natural substance, are rated as a 10 on the Mohs scale.

Sapphires, along with rubies, belong to the corundum mineral family and are rated 9 on the Mohs scale. This exceptional hardness makes sapphires highly resistant to scratching, making them ideal for everyday wear in jewelry pieces like rings and bracelets. If a gemstone claiming to be a sapphire exhibits noticeable scratches or signs of wear, it may not be a genuine sapphire.

Scratch Resistance: Testing a Sapphire’s Hardness

To evaluate a sapphire’s hardness, experts conduct a scratch resistance test using materials with varying hardness levels. This test involves trying to scratch the gemstone’s surface with objects known to be softer, harder, or equal in hardness to a sapphire.

A genuine sapphire will not be scratched by materials with a lower hardness on the Mohs scale, such as glass (5.5) or steel (6-7). However, it can be scratched by harder substances like diamonds. When performing this test, professionals use controlled pressure to avoid damaging the gemstone.

It’s important to note that while a genuine sapphire will not scratch easily, some other gemstones like spinel or synthetic sapphires may also have a high Mohs hardness, making this test only one of several factors in determining authenticity.

Understanding the Mohs Scale for Hardness Comparison

The Mohs scale provides a useful comparison between different gemstones’ hardness levels, allowing gemologists to differentiate between real sapphires and imitations. When comparing a sapphire to other common gemstones, the Mohs scale can help reveal any significant discrepancies that may indicate a fake gem.

For instance, if a gemstone claiming to be a sapphire can be easily scratched by steel or even a fingernail (both lower on the Mohs scale), it is likely not a genuine sapphire. On the other hand, if it can scratch glass or leave marks on materials with lower hardness, it suggests the gemstone is indeed a real sapphire.

Specific Gravity and Density

The Concept of Specific Gravity in Gemstone Identification

Specific gravity is a critical property used by gemologists to distinguish between various gemstones, including sapphires. It is a measurement of a gemstone’s density relative to the density of water. Every mineral has a unique specific gravity value that can serve as a fingerprint for its identification.

For sapphires, the specific gravity typically ranges from 3.99 to 4.10. This means that a sapphire is approximately four times denser than an equal volume of water. By comparing a gemstone’s specific gravity to known values, gemologists can quickly determine if it is consistent with that of a genuine sapphire.

Measuring the Density of A Sapphire: Simple Methods

Determining a sapphire’s specific gravity can be accomplished through various straightforward techniques. One common method is the displacement method, where the gemstone is weighed both in air and underwater. By dividing the weight in air by the loss of weight in water, the gemstone’s specific gravity can be calculated accurately.

Another method involves using a precision balance to measure the gemstone’s weight in air and then immersing it in a liquid with a known density, such as methylene iodide. The difference in weight between air and liquid provides the data needed to calculate the specific gravity.

How Density Can Confirm a Sapphire’s Authenticity

The specific gravity value obtained for a gemstone can be cross-referenced with reference charts and databases to determine its identity. In the case of sapphires, the specific gravity falls within a specific range, which helps to authenticate the gemstone.

If the measured specific gravity deviates significantly from the typical range for sapphires, it could be an indication of a different gemstone altogether or a synthetic sapphire. While synthetic sapphires may have similar chemical compositions and optical properties to natural sapphires, they might have variations in density due to differences in manufacturing processes.

Refractive Index and Brilliance

What Is the Refractive Index, and How Does It Affect Sapphires?

The refractive index is a crucial optical property used to identify and authenticate gemstones, including sapphires. It measures how much light bends or refracts as it passes through a gemstone. Each mineral has a specific refractive index, making it a valuable tool for gemologists to distinguish between different gem types.

In the case of sapphires, the refractive index ranges from approximately 1.760 to 1.770. This value is a result of the gemstone’s chemical composition and crystal structure. When light enters a sapphire, it slows down and changes direction due to the difference in refractive index between the air and the gem.

Conducting a Basic Brilliance Test

Brilliance refers to the gemstone’s ability to reflect light internally and externally, giving it a captivating sparkle. The brilliance of a sapphire is directly related to its refractive index. Higher refractive indices result in increased brilliance and fire, which are highly desirable traits in genuine sapphires.

To conduct a basic brilliance test, hold the sapphire under a bright light source and observe how the light interacts with the gem’s surface. Genuine sapphires will exhibit excellent brilliance, with light bouncing around within the gemstone and creating a beautiful play of colors. The gem should appear lively and vibrant as it reflects light back to the viewer.

Recognizing Authentic Sapphires’ Ability to Reflect Light

Real sapphires possess an exceptional ability to reflect light due to their high refractive index. This quality is a result of their natural formation over millions of years under intense geological conditions. As light enters the sapphire and interacts with its internal structure, it refracts and disperses, creating a stunning display of colors and brilliance.

In contrast, imitation or synthetic sapphires may lack the same brilliance and display a somewhat dull appearance. They may also exhibit a more “glassy” or “plastic” look, as their refractive indices and optical properties differ from those of genuine sapphires.

Heat Conductivity

Heat conductivity is a reliable and widely used test to distinguish real sapphires from synthetic or imitation ones. This test takes advantage of the distinct thermal properties of different gemstones, including sapphires, to reveal their authenticity.

The Heat Conductivity Test for Sapphires

The heat conductivity test involves using a handheld gemstone tester or a probe to apply heat to the surface of the gemstone. Natural sapphires have a relatively low heat conductivity, meaning they do not readily conduct heat away from the point of application. As a result, the temperature of the sapphire will remain relatively constant during the test.

On the other hand, synthetic sapphires or imitations may exhibit higher heat conductivity due to differences in their crystal structures or manufacturing processes. As the heat is applied, these gemstones will quickly conduct the heat away, causing a noticeable change in temperature.

Comparing the Thermal Properties of Real and Fake Sapphires

During the heat conductivity test, genuine sapphires will display minimal to no temperature change, indicating their low heat conductivity. This characteristic is a result of the natural formation of sapphires over millions of years, which results in their distinct thermal properties.

Synthetic sapphires or imitations, however, will exhibit a more rapid temperature change as they conduct heat away from the point of application. This difference in thermal behavior serves as a clear distinction between real and fake sapphires during the heat conductivity test.

Precautions when Conducting the Heat Conductivity Test

While the heat conductivity test is a valuable tool in identifying sapphire authenticity, it is essential to exercise caution when conducting this test. Excessive or prolonged heat exposure can potentially damage gemstones, especially those with treatments or fractures.

To ensure the safety and integrity of the gemstone, the test should be performed by a professional gemologist or an individual experienced in handling gemstone testing equipment. Additionally, certain precautions, such as using a gemstone tester with controlled heat output, can minimize the risk of damaging the gemstone during the test.

Polarized Light Testing

Polarized light testing is a specialized gemological method used to assess the optical properties of gemstones, including sapphires. This technique provides valuable information about a gemstone’s crystal structure and helps distinguish between natural sapphires and synthetic or imitation ones.

Introduction to Polarized Light and Its Role in Sapphire Verification

Polarized light consists of light waves oscillating in a specific plane, allowing gemologists to observe how gemstones interact with this type of light. When polarized light passes through a gemstone, it reveals unique patterns and characteristics that are indicative of its internal structure.

In the case of sapphires, natural gemstones often exhibit distinctive birefringence patterns when viewed under polarized light. Birefringence is the property of splitting light into two different rays as it passes through the crystal structure, resulting in colorful interference patterns.

Conducting a Polarized Light Test on Sapphires

The polarized light test requires the use of a specialized gemological instrument called a polariscope. The sapphire is placed between two polarizing filters, one on top and one on the bottom. When the light passes through the filters and the gemstone, it interacts with the internal crystal structure of the sapphire.

Under polarized light, genuine sapphires often display distinct and colorful birefringence patterns known as interference figures. These patterns appear as areas of bright and dark colors, creating a mesmerizing visual effect. Synthetic or imitation sapphires may exhibit different interference patterns or even show no birefringence at all.

Analyzing the Results and What They Indicate About Authenticity

When analyzing the results of the polarized light test, gemologists look for characteristic birefringence patterns that align with those commonly observed in natural sapphires. These patterns serve as strong evidence of a genuine gem.

In contrast, synthetic sapphires may exhibit regular or repeating patterns, suggesting their artificial origin. Imitation sapphires made from other materials, such as glass or plastic, may not show any birefringence patterns under polarized light.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What Are the Most Common Fake Sapphires in The Market?

Imitation and synthetic sapphires can be commonly found in the market. Imitation sapphires are typically made from materials like glass or cubic zirconia, which are crafted to resemble the appearance of real sapphires. These imitation gemstones may have a similar color and even some visible inclusions, but they lack the genuine properties and value of natural sapphires.

Synthetic sapphires, also known as lab-grown or created sapphires, are produced in a controlled environment using advanced technology that replicates the natural conditions under which sapphires are formed. While chemically identical to natural sapphires, they are grown in a shorter period, making them more affordable than their natural counterparts.

Can Synthetic Sapphires Have Inclusions Like Natural Ones?

Yes, synthetic sapphires can have inclusions similar to those found in natural sapphires. During the lab-grown process, tiny crystals or other foreign materials may become trapped inside the synthetic sapphire, creating inclusions that closely resemble natural ones. As a result, relying solely on the presence of inclusions is not a foolproof method to determine a sapphire’s authenticity.

Are All Natural Sapphires Valuable?

The value of a natural sapphire is determined by several factors, including its color, clarity, size, and origin. Highly saturated, vivid blue sapphires from famous sources like Kashmir or Burma are the most valuable due to their rarity and exceptional beauty. However, sapphires in other colors or with inclusions can still be valuable depending on individual preferences and market demand.

Can I Trust At-Home Sapphire Authenticity Tests?

At-home sapphire authenticity tests can be useful for initial assessments but may not always provide conclusive results. Simple tests like the scratch resistance or visual inspections can offer some insights into a gemstone’s authenticity, but they cannot replace professional gemological evaluation.

For a definitive verification, it is advisable to seek the expertise of a certified gemologist or bring the sapphire to a reputable gemological laboratory for a comprehensive analysis and certification.

Are Lab-Created Sapphires Considered Fake?

Lab-created sapphires are not considered fake, as they have the same chemical composition and physical properties as natural sapphires. The primary distinction lies in their origin and formation process. Synthetic sapphires are grown in a laboratory, while natural sapphires are formed over millions of years in the Earth’s crust.

Both natural and synthetic sapphires have their unique characteristics and appeal, and their value is ultimately a matter of personal preference and budget.

Do Color-Changing Sapphires Indicate Authenticity?

Color-changing sapphires are relatively rare and highly valued for their ability to exhibit different colors under varying lighting conditions. While color-changing sapphires are often genuine gemstones, the presence of this phenomenon alone is not a definitive indicator of authenticity.

To ensure a color-changing sapphire is genuine, it is crucial to consider other authentication methods, such as visual inspection, refractive index, and specific gravity tests.

Can Fake Sapphires Pass Diamond Testers?

Diamond testers, which assess thermal conductivity, are not suitable for identifying sapphires or other gemstones. While they can differentiate between diamonds and some diamond simulants, they are not effective in verifying the authenticity of sapphires or other non-diamond gemstones.

For accurate sapphire authentication, it is essential to employ specialized gemological equipment and techniques, such as polarized light testing or specific gravity measurements.

What Other Gemstones Might Be Mistaken for Sapphires?

Several gemstones may be mistaken for sapphires due to similar colors or appearances. Some common examples include blue spinel, blue topaz, and blue tourmaline. Additionally, certain synthetic gemstones like blue synthetic spinel or blue synthetic spinel can closely resemble sapphires.

To avoid confusion, seeking professional expertise or a gemological certificate is recommended when purchasing a gemstone that appears to be a blue sapphire.

Is It Possible to Have a Sapphire that Changes Color Over Time?

While some sapphires may display color change phenomena under certain lighting conditions, sapphires do not naturally change color over time. The color of a sapphire is determined by its chemical composition and crystal structure, which remain stable throughout the gemstone’s lifetime.

If a sapphire appears to change color over time, it could be due to changes in lighting conditions, surroundings, or the presence of an optical effect such as asterism (the star effect). If the color change is significant and consistent, it may be an indication of an imitation or treated gemstone.


Remember that identifying real sapphires is an art that takes time and experience to master. While at-home tests can provide initial clues, seeking the expertise of a certified gemologist is always recommended when dealing with high-value gemstones. A professional evaluation can offer unparalleled assurance and add value to your precious gemstone.

As you embark on your journey into the world of sapphires, don’t forget to cherish these mesmerizing gemstones for their exceptional beauty and unique characteristics. Whether you’re looking for a dazzling sapphire engagement ring or an exquisite piece of jewelry to treasure for generations, the allure of authentic sapphires is timeless.